Smoking and chemical exposure increases cancer risks
Bladder cancer often affects men and older adults. Being a smoker or getting exposed to certain chemicals increases your bladder cancer risk.
The most common bladder cancer symptom is blood in the urine. People also may have:
Diagnosing bladder cancer includes labs and imaging tests
The following are bladder cancer screening tests:
• Cystoscopy. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Tissue samples may be biopsied.
• Urine cytology. Urine sample is examined under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.
• Hematuria test. Doctors check for blood in a urine sample by using a microscope or a special test strip.
Bladder cancer treatment can vary
Bladder cancer treatment may include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, clinical trials, and complementary and integrative therapies.
Surgery: The type of bladder cancer surgery depends on the bladder cancer stage and grade:
Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is a procedure that lets your doctor diagnose and treat your bladder cancer. A surgeon inserts an instrument called a cystoscope into the bladder and uses a tool to remove the tumor. Additional treatments may follow, including chemotherapy and immunotherapy, to keep the cancer from coming back.
Radical cystectomy removes the entire bladder as well as tissue around it and possibly other organs. In some instances only a part of the bladder is taken out. That procedure is called a partial cystectomy. Your surgeon may perform laparoscopic or robotic surgery for the cystectomy.
Chemotherapy may be given before surgery for bladder cancer.
Intravesical chemotherapy puts chemotherapy directly into the bladder through a catheter.
Systemic chemotherapy treats cancer cells throughout the body.
Radiation therapy may be done along with chemotherapy to treat bladder cancer.
Immunotherapy uses the body’s own defenses to fight the cancer. Therapy involves placing an immunotherapy drug directly into the bladder.