Colon Cancer | Colorectal Cancer

Our Approach to Colorectal Cancer Care

Colon cancer is the second-leading cause of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Maine. The disease is sometimes called colorectal cancer, or cancer that forms in the colon or rectum. MaineHealth provides screening, diagnosis, and treatment for colon cancer and all gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Screenings for colon cancer can be close to home at community hospitals and specialty practices. Our physician specialists include board-certified colorectal surgeons.

Importance of Screenings

Most colon cancers develop from polyps that can turn into cancer. Screenings can find polyps before they are cancer. People at average risk of colon cancer are recommended for screening starting at age 50. Talk to your provider about scheduling a screening. Some people may be at higher risk and need to be screened earlier:

  • African Americans
  • People who have close relatives with cancer
  • Patients with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Certain genetic syndromes
  • Lifestyle factors: obesity, smoking, heavy alcohol use, eating a lot of red meat and fatty foods

Finding a Colorectal Cancer Specialist

If your provider thinks you may have cancer, you will be asked to see specialists who evaluate and treat colon cancer:

  • Medical oncologists treat cancer using medicine (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, biotherapy and/or immunotherapy) rather than radiation.
  • Radiation oncologists use high-energy X-rays to destroy cancer cells while sparing surrounding normal tissue.
  • Surgeons focus on the surgical management of cancer
  • Cancer Patient Navigators  put the patient first, helping you and your loved ones connect to resources and services.

Why Do I Need So Many Doctors?

It is important that cancer specialists highly trained in their area of care participate in evaluating your diagnosis and planning your treatment.

Understanding Colon Cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

The following information is on knowing the symptoms, screenings, diagnosis and treatments for colorectal cancer. Read on to learn about how to help lower your risk and prevent colon cancer.

Colon Cancer Symptoms

Colon cancer signs can vary

Symptoms of colon cancer can depend on the size of the tumor and its location in the lower GI tract.

Common signs are:

  • Changes in bowel movements
  • Blood in the stool (bright red or black)
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling tired or rundown
  • Stomach discomfort

Colon Cancer Screening & Diagnosis

Diagnosing colon cancer

Doctors recommend that people 50 and older (younger if there is a family history) have regular colon cancer screenings. Colon Cancer Screenings help prevent and detect colon cancer. Early detection is a patient’s best chance for successful treatment and recovery.

  • Colonoscopy and FIT tests are the standard screening for colon cancer. During a colonoscopy, doctors look for signs of cancer and also remove any polyps that may have formed in a patient’s colon. Removing polyps, or small growths, before they turn into cancer is the best way to prevent colon cancer. A screening colonoscopy if negative is repeated every 10 years.

  •  The FIT test requires the collection of a stool sample that is tested and this needs to be repeated annually.

  • Other screenings for colon cancer can include flexible sigmoidoscopy, fecal occult blood test, fecal immunoassay (FIT test), double contrast barium enema, CT colonography (or virtual colonoscopy).

Colon Cancer Treatments

Colon cancer therapies can vary

Treatment for colon cancer varies depending on cancer stage and type. Complementary and integrative therapies, while not primary treatment options can be discussed with our providers. The size of the cancer and how far it has spread will affect treatment options. Common treatments include:

  • Surgery

  • Radiation

  • Chemotherapy

  • Targeted therapies

  • Clinical trials

Colon Cancer Prevention

Colorectal cancer may be prevented through screening, which means having tests to try to keep cancer from developing or to treat it at a very early stage.

  • Regular screenings are recommended for older adults. Talk to your primary care doctor about setting up a screening, if you have not talked about it already.
  • Some populations may be more at risk of colorectal cancer. If you are of African American descent, you provider may recommend you start regular screenings at an earlier age.
  • People with close relatives who have had colon cancer may be advised to start screenings at an earlier age. Talk to your primary care provider.
  • IBD, or inflammatory bowel disease, can put you at great risk of cancer. Discuss screening strategies with your provider.

Other Risk Factors

You may be at greater risk for colorectal cancer for the reasons listed below. Talk to your primary care provider to see if you need to be screened for colorectal cancer.

  • Family history of polyps or colorectal cancer
  • Certain genetic syndromes
  • Your diet consists of a lot of red meat (beef, pork, lamb)
  • You do not get much exercise or physical activity
  • Other lifestyle factors include obesity, smoking, alcohol overuse (eight or more drinks per week for women; 15 or more drinks for men)


Nyle's Survivor Story

Nyle wanted to prove he didn’t have cancer. When he visited his doctor for a colonoscopy, it proved something different, and ultimately saved his life.

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